Cluster pine

Pinus pinaster
Cluster pine: Pinus pinaster Cluster pine: Pinus pinaster

Common name:

Cluster pine

Scientific name:

Pinus pinaster (Pinaceae)

Alternative common names:

Trosden (Afrikaans)


 A coniferous tree 8-15m high, conical when young, becoming cylindrical with a tall, bare trunk when older. Reddish-brown bark, deeply cracked into plates. Dull grey-green leaf needles in bundles of two. Cones initially purple, turning light brown 9-18cm long. This pine invades mountains and lowland fynbos

Additional Info

  • Where does this species come from?


    What is its invasive status in South Africa?

    CARA 2002 – Category 2 NEMBA – a. 2 for plantations and wind-rows. b. 1b elsewhere. c. National Heritage Trees or National Monument Trees in terms of the National Heritage Resources Act, 1999, (Act No. 25 of 1999), are not listed.

    Where in South Africa is it a problem?

    Western Cape

    How does it spread?

    Spreads by seed dispersal from the cones

    Why is it a problem?

    Competes with and replaces indigenous species. Dense stands can reduce water runoff and stream flow from mountain catchments, reduce grazing, and pose a fire hazard which threatens the survival of indigenous animal and plant species

    What does it look like?

    General description: Coniferous tree 8-15m high; conical when young, becoming cylindrical with a tall, bare trunk when older; bark reddish-brown, deeply cracked into plates. Leaves: Needles, dull grey-green, in bundles of two, long (80-240 mm), thick and rigid. Flowers: Does not produce any flowers. Fruit/Seeds: Produces woody purple cones which turn light brown, 90-180mm long, shortly stalked, often clustered and persistent

    Does the plant have any uses?

    Used for timber

    Plant me instead alternatives

    Yellowwoods (Podocarpus henkellii, Podocarpus latifolius, Podocarpus falcatus)